درباره مجموعه فیلمهای : هابیت The Hobbit
هابیت یک سری فیلم متشکل از سه فیلم ماجراجویی فانتزی حماسی به کارگردانی پیتر جکسون است. آنها در 1937 رمان هابیت توسط JRR ویکیپدیا بر اساس
کارگردان: پیتر جکسون
شخصیت: اسماگ، توریل، بیلبو بگینز، لگولاس، بیش
شرکت های تولید: جدید خط سینما، مترو گلدوین مایر، فیلم
مارتین جان کریستوفر فریمن (به انگلیسی: Martin John C. Freeman) (زاده ۸ سپتامبر ۱۹۷۱) بازیگر انگلیسی است. عمده شهرتش بخاطر بازی در نقش جان واتسون در سریال شرلوک و بیلبو بگینز در هابیت میباشد.
وی متولد شهر الدرشات در همپشر است. پدر و مادر مارتین در زمانی که وی کودک بود از هم طلاق گرفتند. وی یک مسیحی کاتولیک است و دانشآموختهٔ کالج بروکلندز در رشتهٔ مطالعات رسانه است. منبع
ریچارد آرمیتاژ (هنرمند)
از ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
Armitage New York December 2012.jpg
آرمیتاژ در نیویورک (۲۰۱۲)
نام اصلی ریچارد کریسپین آرمیتاژ
زمینه فعالیت بازیگری
تولد ۲۲ اوت ۱۹۷۱ (۴۳ سال)
ملیت Flag of the United Kingdom.svg انگلیسی
سالهای فعالیت ۱۹۸۸ - حال
ریچارد کریسپین آرمیتاژ (زاده ۲۲ آگوست ۱۹۷۱) بازیگر انگلیسی است. وی بخاطر بازی در مجموعه فیلمهای هابیت به کارگردانی پیتر جکسون و کاپیتان آمریکا: نخستین انتقامجو به شهرت بینالمللی رسیده است.
ریچارد متولد لستر در انگلستان است. وی در کالج بروکینگتون در رشته موسیقی تحصیل کرده است.منبع
Sir Ian Murray McKellen, CH, CBE
سِر ایان مککلن، CBE (به انگلیسی: Sir Ian Murray McKellen, CH, CBE) (زاده ۲۵ مه ۱۹۳۹) بازیگر انگلیسی است.
از فیلمهای معروف او میتوان به سهگانه ارباب حلقهها، هابیت و مردان ایکس اشاره کرد.
ایان مک کلین به واسطه حضور در فیلم ارباب حلقهها: یاران حلقه موفق شد تا برای دومین بار کاندید اسکار بهترین بازیگر مکمل مرد شود. منبع
اورلاندو بلوم (به انگلیسی: Orlando Bloom) (زادهٔ ۱۳ ژانویه ۱۹۷۷) یک بازیگر انگلیسی که پیرو بازی در سبک باستانی است.
او با نقش غیرمنتظره خود در اوایل سالهای ۲۰۰۰ به عنوان شاهزادهٔ پریان به نام لگولاس در فیلم ارباب حلقهها و هابیت و آهنگری به نام ویل ترنر در سهگانه فیلم دزدان دریایی کارائیب و متعاقباً در فیلمهایی همچون تروآ، شهر الیزابت، پادشاهی بهشت خود را به عنوان یکی از بازیگران سینمای هالیوود مطرح کردهاست.
اورلاندو بلوم در سال ۲۰۱۰ با مانکن معروف ویکتوریا سیکرت، میراندا کر ازدواج کرد. این دو صاحب یک پسر به نام فیلین شدند. بلوم و کر در سال ۲۰۱۳ از یکدیگر جدا شده و به زندگی مشترک خود پایان دادند. وى اخيرا با بازى در تريلوژى هابيت3 (نبرد پنج ارتش) در نقش لگولاس را با موفقيت به پايان رساند. Link
Posters for the trilogy. From left to right: An Unexpected Journey, The Desolation of Smaug and The Battle of the Five Armies
- 14 December 2012
- (An Unexpected Journey)
- 13 December 2013
- (The Desolation of Smaug)
- 17 December 2014
- (The Battle of the Five Armies)
Running time474 minutes
(theatrical edition) 542 minutes
Read a Lawyer's Amazingly Detailed Analysis of Bilbo's Contract in The Hobbit
Editor's Note: James Daily, a lawyer and co-author of The Law and Superheroes, typically focuses his legal critiques on the superhero world at the Law and the Multiverse website he runs with fellow lawyer and co-author Ryan Davidson. Today, Daily takes a look a very important cultural document for Wired: The contract between Bilbo Baggins and the dwarves in The Hobbit.
Ordinarily I don't discuss legal issues relating to fictional settings that are dramatically different from the real world in terms of their legal system. Thus, Star Wars, Star Trek, Tolkien's Middle Earth, etc. are usually off-limits because we can't meaningfully apply real-world law to them. But the contract featured in The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey was just too good a topic to pass up, especially since you can buy a high-quality replica of it that is over 5 feet long unfolded.
First, it seems fairly clear (to me, anyway) that Tolkien wrote the Shire (where hobbits live) as a close analog to pastoral England, with its similar legal and political structures. For example, the Shire has a mayor and sheriffs, and there is a system of inheritance similar to the common law. The common law fundamentals of contract law have not changed significantly since the time that the Shire is meant to evoke, so it makes sense that the contract would be broadly similar to a modern contract (and likewise that we could apply modern contract law to it).
So, without further ado, let's get to it.
The Contract in General
As mentioned, the contract is quite long. This is in contrast with the contract as described in the book, which is very terse. Its terms amounted to this:
For your hospitality our sincerest thanks, and for your offer of professional assistance our grateful acceptance. Terms: cash on delivery, up to and not exceeding one fourteenth of total profits (if any); all travelling expenses guaranteed in any event; funeral expenses to be defrayed by us or our representatives, if occasion arises and the matter is not otherwise arranged for.
Even in the book's version we see an issue: the dwarves accept Bilbo's "offer" but then proceed to give terms. This is not actually an acceptance but rather a counter-offer, since they're adding terms. In the end it doesn't matter because Bilbo effectively accepts the counter-offer by showing up and rendering his services as a burglar, but the basic point is that the words of a contract do not always have the legal effect that they claim to have. Sometimes you have to look past the form to the substance.
But back to the movie version: It has at least 40 major sections and numerous footnotes and digressions in smaller type. We will begin at the beginning and go on till we reach the end, except where the form of the contract requires some jumping around.
Bilbo's Obligations to the Dwarves
Two clauses describe Bilbo's primary obligations:
I, the undersigned, [referred to hereinafter as Burglar,] agree to travel to the Lonely Mountain, path to be determined by Thorin Oakenshield, who has a right to alter the course of the journey at his so choosing, without prior notification and/or liability for accident or injury incurred.
The aforementioned journey and subsequent extraction from the Lonely Mountain of any and all goods, valuables and chattels [which activities are described collectively herein as the Adventure] shall proceed in a timely manner and with all due care and consideration as seen fit by said Thorin Oakenshield and companions, numbering thirteen more or less, to wit, the Company.
All contracts require some consideration from all parties to the contract. Consideration, in the contract sense, means a bargained-for performance or promise. Restatement (Second) of Contracts § 71(1). Basically, this is something of value given or promised as part of the agreement. This can be anything that the parties agree is valuable; the classic example is a single peppercorn. Whitney v. Stearns, 16 Me. 394, 397 (1839).
Here, Bilbo is promising to go with the Company to the Lonely Mountain and performing various services there, including extracting the treasure, plus a few more services we'll get to later. In turn, as we shall see, the Company promises to pay Bilbo one fourteenth of the profits, plus a few other obligations. Thus we have "a promise for a promise," otherwise known as a bilateral contract.
There are some other details to notice in these clauses. One is the use of defined terms (e.g. "referred to hereinafter as Burglar"). The parties to a contract may define terms however they wish, even in ways that contradict the definition used in statutes or regulations.
This is important in this case because of the use of the defined term "Burglar." Contracts to do something illegal are ordinarily unenforceable (e.g. collecting on an illegal gambling debt). But here what matters is not that the parties used the word 'burglar' but rather what sort of meaning they assigned to that defined term. As we shall see, the contract doesn't require Bilbo to do anything illegal (or at least not obviously illegal), and so the contract will probably not fail for use of a questionable term.
Thorin's Right to Alter the Journey
These two clauses also pose something of a contradiction. On the one hand we see the first of many liability waivers:
[Thorin has] a right to alter the course of the journey at his so choosing, without prior notification and/or liability for accident or injury incurred." But on the other hand we see this explicit obligation of care: "[the Adventure] shall proceed in a timely manner and with all due care and consideration.
Ordinarily "due care and consideration" signifies taking on liability for negligence, so this conflicts with the earlier liability waiver. Perhaps the two can be reconciled by the phrase "as seen fit by said Thorin Oakenshield and companions." Thorin and Co. could always claim that the amount of care and consideration they saw fit was extremely minimal, though that runs the risk of making the clause meaningless, which courts usually don't like to do. "As a general proposition, whenever possible, the law favors reconciliation of clauses within a contract which appear contradictory." City of Columbia v. Paul N. Howard Co., 707 F.2d 338, 340 (8th Cir. 1983). Taken together with the numerous other waivers and disclaimers, I think a court would probably conclude that Thorin & Co. were not taking on any particular duty of care. "A writing is interpreted as a whole." Restatement (Second) of Contracts § 202(2).
Waivers or disclaimers of liability are an important part of many contracts. These can include waivers of a product warranty (seen all the time in software license agreements) and waivers for liability due to negligence (often required before doing something dangerous like skydiving). But there are limits to liability waivers. While a party to a contract can ordinarily waive liability for negligence (although not in every jurisdiction), one cannot waive liability for gross negligence, recklessness, or intentional misconduct. So the numerous (and sweeping!) waivers and disclaimers may not be as effective as they appear at first glance.
So far the Dwarves haven't committed any unsalvageable drafting errors or done anything that might jeopardize the validity of the contract. We'll see if that keeps up!
Waivers for Notoriety and 'Unlooked-for' Misfortune
The next section is yet another waiver:
Burglar holds harmless and without blame in perpetuity the Company and its successors for any notoriety, incarceration, or proceedings brought against, in regard to or as a result of the adventure or any activities related thereto.
Also includes slander, libel, loss of face or of social standing in country of Burglar's origin.
Remedies shall similarly not be sought for any unlooked-for misfortune befalling Burglar's home during his absence.
The smaller text is written in the margin or otherwise in smaller writing. There's a lot of that kind of writing in the margins that we'll be referring to as we go through the contract. For the most part the size of the print doesn't matter, but there are some contract terms, such as warranty disclaimers, that must be printed conspicuously, which usually means large print or all caps. UCC §§ 2-316(2), 1-201(b)(10). At common law we suspect the rules were even looser.
This set of waivers is not particularly objectionable. As discussed in the prior post, the actual scope of the waiver may not be as broad as the language suggests. For example, if the Dwarves intentionally burned down Bag End, this waiver would not prevent Bilbo from suing them for the damage.
It may bear mentioning that the slander waiver only protects the Company. Bilbo could still sue the actual slanderer, of course. Traditionally this has been easier to do in England than the United States. At common law, for example, truth was no defense to criminal libel (also known as seditious libel). Garrison v. Louisiana, 379 U.S. 64, 67-68 (1964).
Payment (and Funeral Expenses) for the Burglar
Now we come to some terms of the contract actually described in the book:
Cash on delivery, up to and not exceeding one fourteenth of the total profit [if any]. Not including any of the gross paid to other parties in lieu of royalties or help and provisions given or loaned.
All traveling expenses guaranteed in any event. But refer to attached and appended conditions, clauses and riders regarding any Return Journey. 'Traveling expenses' shall be understood to mean basic fare as seen fit by the Company. 'Luxury' catering or accomodation over and above this standard shall be enjoyed only at Burglar's considerable [but justifiable] expense.
Funeral expenses to be defrayed by us or our representatives if occasion arises and the matter is not otherwise arranged for. Basic funeral to 'commoner' or peasant standard is allowed for only. Lavish ceremonies and jewelled (sic) or gilded coffins not provided. Plain pine box is the normal standard. Transport of any remains, in whole or in part, back to the country of Burglar's origin is not included.
Most of these clauses are fairly straightforward. In terms of the plot, the more important clause is the one regarding profits. Already we see part of th